Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend Global Summit on Plant Science San Antonio, USA.

Day 3 :

  • Track 7: Plant Anatomy and Embryology
    Track 8: Plant Breeding and Molecular Breeding
    Track 9: Plant Ecology and Diversity
    Track 10: Plant Nutrition and soil Science
    Track No.13: Plant Biodiversity and conservation

Session Introduction

Rajinder Singh

Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Malaysia

Title: Oil palm genome sequence: applications for crop improvement
Speaker
Biography:

Rajinder Singh is currently a Principal Research Officer at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board. Rajinder has been with the Malaysian Palm Oil Board for the last 18 years. He holds a PhD in Plant Genetics and is currently the Head of Genomics Unit of the Advanced Biotechnology & Breeding Centre, at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). Rajinder has authored and co-authored more than 30 refereed publications

Abstract:

Oil palm is the most productive vegetable oil crop, contributing significantly to the increasing demand for oils and fats by the world’s growing population. Research and development (R&D) efforts in the area of oil palm genomics was initiated to help improve breeding efficiency. The efforts received a boost when the oil palm genespace was sequenced in 2004 using the GeneThresherTM methylation filtration technique, which focused on sequencing the hypo methylated regions of the oil palm. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were mined from these sequences and used to construct high density genetic maps for oil palm. Subsequent to this, the genomes of Elaeis guineensis and Elaeis oleifera were sequenced at high coverage, using a combination of 454/Roche technology and BAC end sequencing. The genetic maps constructed previously were used to align and orientate the sequence scaffolds. The main aim was to use the high quality sequence assembly to identify genes influencing important agronomic traits. In this respect, the Shell gene, responsible for the three different fruit forms of oil palm was uncovered, and has important implications increasing palm oil yield as well as improving breeding efficiency. Expanding on this, the gene influencing the exocarp colour of oil palm fruits was also identified and will be useful in improving harvesting practices and subsequently oil yield. However, to uncover the complexities and diverse physiological processes in the oil palm, an integrative “omics” approach which complements genome knowledge with proteomics and metabolomics datais also being actively exploited.

Speaker
Biography:

João Paulo R. Marques is a plant anatomist and has worked for more than ten years with histopathology of diseased orange plants. His PhD received an Award in 2014 as the best Thesis of University of São Paulo, Brazil. He has published several papers about structure, ultrastructure and histochemistry related to plant efforts against different pathogens.

Abstract:

The world's population is growing and the demand for healthy foods tends to increase. Plants are challenged by a wide variety of microbes and in several cases, plants present constitutive structural and biochemical barriers that act efficiently in containing infection or colonization processes. One special case is the interaction of the fungus Colletotrichum acutaum with Citrus sinensis petals. The fungus causes premature fruit drop. The Brazilian citrus producers apply fungicides 7-14 times since the beginning of the development of flower buds. Anatomical analysis shows that flower buds smaller than 8 mm long present constitutive structural and biochemical barriers to C. acutaum. The arrangement of the epidermal papillae in the petal primordia, the occurrence of prismatic crystals and the distribution of oil glands are constitutive barriers. For instance, spraying fungicides to control the disease can be delayed until flower buds are longer than 8 mm. The use of conventional and histochemical tests shows that only petals are infected by the fungus. The epidermal cells of stigma produce a large amount of protein and a protective layer that promotes stigma resistance to infection. On the other hand, pollen grains of C. sinensis are infected by the fungus and may, in fact, play a role in the spread of C. acutaum in citrus orchards. Understanding these barriers is essential to promote disease management in the field, reducing production costs and environment damages.

Hikmet Budak

Sabanci University, Turkey

Title: miRNA Evolution in Triticeae
Speaker
Biography:

Prof. Hikmet Budak has completed his Ph.D. in 2002 from University of Nebraska-Lincoln and served as Coordinator at the same university until 2004. He is the Group leader of Plant Genomics at Sabanci University. He has published more than 90 papers in reputed journals and serving as an editorial board member of BMC Genomics and Plosone

Abstract:

Evolutionary history of miRNA genes in Triticeae has not been fully understood although there have been several efforts aiming to understand origins, has having an allohexaploid genome, wheat (genome composition: BBAADD) is one of the most suitable organisms to study the effects of the polyploidization and hybridization on the miRNA repertoire of a species. With the advent of the next generation sequencing techniques, accumulating genomic and transcriptomic data of wheat and its progenitor species made the analysis of miRNA evolutionary dynamics possible. We recently identified and annotated a number of shared and lineage-specific miRNA genes among A (Triticum urartu, Triticum monoccocum), B (Aegilops speltoides and Aegilops sharonensis) and D (Aegilops tauschii) genome donors of wheat and MU genome (Aegilops geniculate), CCDD (Aegilops cilindirica). miRNA families are evolutionarily conserved across all major lineages of Triticeae. Up until now there are several proposed mechanisms for miRNA evolution. Our study suggests found that some miRNAs, were lost during the evolution; and also suggests that about half of the miRNA gene families identified in the ancestor of Triticeae have been lost. We also compared the newly identified miRNAs and new miRNA genes are usually species specific and or lineage specific. We will discuss about evolutionary history of miRNAs more in detail during this presentation.

Speaker
Biography:

Kathryn Hill has recently submitted her Ph.D. thesis at the University of Adelaide where she is currently working as a Research Associate

Abstract:

Correlation of stomatal and pinnule traits with environmental changes assists in determining plant function in the face of such changes. This presentation will examine the influence of changes in humidity, insolation, temperature and CO2 on stomatal and pinnule traits of the Australian cycad Bowenia since the Eocene. A re-examination of known and newly discovered Bowenia macrofossils confirms the presence of at least three fossil species from a total of five Eocene locations in Australia. A new species, B. johnsonii, is described from the oldest and most southerly location, the Early Eocene Lowana Road site in south-west Tasmania. When compared with the two extant species, the three fossil species demonstrate two distinct pinnule morphologies, relatively small with distinct serrations in B. eocenica and B. papillosa, and larger with minute serrations in B. johnsonii. When considered together as a single group, the stomata of the extant species were more densely packed and larger with a higher maximum potential water loss per unit pinnule area than the group of fossil taxa. Variation in these pinnule and stomatal traits is probably due to the large scale environmental changes experienced by Bowenia since the northward movement of Australia, including changes in light, temperature, rainfall, humidity and atmospheric CO2 levels.

Speaker
Biography:

Zsolt Pónya has completed his PhD at the age of 32 years from the Eötvös Lóránd University of Arts and Sciences, Budapest, Hungary, and following obtaining his degree, he has launched his postdoctoral studies at the University of Siena, Italy, followed by a postdoc research fellowship at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel. He is currently a senior scientist at the University of Kaposvár, Hungary. He has published a number of papers in reputed international journals and is a member of the editorial board of several prestigious scientific journals.

Abstract:

During development, cell division cycle, differentiation and morphogenesis must be finely balanced. Altering cell cycle progression appears to have dramatic effects on morphogenesis in unicellular organisms and early embryos and in developing organs with predefined patterns. The possibility that the cell cycle may exert a control on morphogenesis during early embryogenesis in plants is suggested by three lines of evidence: (1) organ size and shape is severely affected in many tobacco seedlings expressing cdc2aN147 and the mutants produce only a few viable seeds; (2) in Arabidopsis plants expressing cdc2aN147 under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter, embryo development appears to be particularly affected and (3) when cdc2aN147 is expressed under the control of the seed storage albumin promoter which drives specific expression during late embryo development, either germination is abolished or cotyledons and root development are absent or completely abnormal. However, little is known on the interactions between cell cycle and morphogenesis during early embryogenesis, because in land plants, most cell cycle mutants are not viable and zygotes are not amenable to direct manipulation. Zygotes of angiosperm species are well suited to study the relationships between the cell cycle and morphogenesis, as cellular differentiation and cell division are closely linked because precise spatial and temporal control of cell is required for the normal cell cleavage of the zygote. Recent discoveries have revealed that all eukaryotic organisms share a common mechanism for the regulation of cell division. A central component of this regulatory mechanism is a 34-kD protein encoded by the cell division cycle gene cdc2. The p34cdc2 protein is a serine/threonine protein kinase that, in association with other proteins, mediates cell division and DNA replication. Through the phosphorylation of specific substrates, p34cdc2 kinase mediates events such as chromosome condensation, nuclear envelope breakdown, and spindle formation. Based on our experimental result that specifically inhibiting CDKs with purine derivatives, such as olomoucine, prevented the early expression of normal morphogenesis in wheat zygotes we report on a putative link between the cell cycle control and the establishment of polarity in wheat zygotes. Our hypothesis is corroborated by our finding that the p34cdc2 protein seemed to localize with the preprophase band (PPB) hinting at the involvement of p34cdc2 in the imprinting of the plane of cell division. In order to maintain the apical-basal polarity in the angiosperm egg/zygote that is oriented relative to maternal structures suggesting that maternal information could play an important role in zygotic embryogenesis, we employed a “re-implantation” technique elaborated in our laboratory that allowed for insitu development of the fusion products thus facilitating the contact of the developing zygote with the maternal tissue. Further, recent findings on the issue of egg cell activation of isolated and invitro fertilised wheat egg cells will be presented.

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Pramod S has completed his PhD at the age of 29 years from Sardar Patel University, Anand, Gujarat and currently doing his postdoctoral studies at Department of Botany, The M.S.University of Baroda, Vadodara, India. His research work is mainly deals with structure and chemistry of plant cell wall, phytohormonal and molecular regulation of lignification pattern during xylogenesis in woody plants. He has published more than 21 papers in reputed journals .

Abstract:

The distribution pattern of pectins and lignin differentiation in the cell walls of living fibres in the secondary xylem of Leucaena leucocephala was examined by light and electron microscopy. The expansion of primary walls during early stage of fibre development was characterized by change in the organization of pectic polysaccharides in the middle lamellae region. The intercellular regions became filled with pectic polysaccharides following initiation of SW deposition. Subsequently, lignification started at cell corners with the deposition of guaiacyl units that co-polymerize with syringyl moieties in the final stages of fibre development. The transmission electron microscopic analysis confirmed the disorganization of pectic polysaccharides in the middle lamellae region during cell expansion and its inhomogenous distribution in the cell corners following secondary wall deposition. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that β-1,4- galactans are mainly incorporated in the middle lamellae region that undergoes disorganization and reorganization during and after cell expansion. In mature fibres, LM 10 labeling indicated that the less substituted xylans are distributed throughout the SW while labeling of highly substituted xylans with LM 11 appeared more intense at corner regions of SW compared to other regions. The KMnO4 staining revealed the relatively higher lignin distribution in xylem fibres in compound middle lamellae and S3 wall layers. The transition zone between S1 and S2 layers showed relatively high lignin distribution in comparison to rest of the S2 wall layer. The ultrastructural studies demonstrated that the inhomogenous distribution of lignin corresponds with that of pectins at the cell corners of fibres. The cell wall delignification resulted in significant reduction of lignin at cell corners, compound middle lamellae and secondary wall layers of fibres

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

The leaf micromorphology and quantitative phytochemical constituents of Jatropha integerrima Jacq and Jatropha podagrica Hook. He studied in his work to access the systematic values of stomata, trichome and the amount of bioactive compounds present in both studied species. A standard method was used for the anatomical and phytochemical analysis. Result shows minor differences between examined species. The microscopic study has revealed that both species are hypostomatic while unicellular trichome is only found on the foliar ad axial surface of Jatropha integerrrima Jacq. Results from the phytochemical analysis has shown little differences in the amount of bioactive compounds present in both species, phenol contents is the highest in the studies species with 37.65% (14.90±0.84 mg/g) in Jatropha integerrima and 36.13% (7.95±0.55 mg/g) in Jatropha podagrica. The amount of terpenoids is less significant in the two species. The similarities and differences in the foliar epidermal characters and quantitative phytochemistry in the two studied species are of taxonomic significance and can be used to delimit to two species.

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) popularly known as guar is a drought hardy, deep-rooted, annual legume, grown for feed, fodder, green manure, vegetable and seed. Of late, the crop has assumed great industrial importance because of occurrence of ‘guar-gum’ in its endosperm and hence, the area under cluster bean is increasing every year. The means to fortify seeds for better seed yield and quality has become important and emphasized. A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of seed fortification on seed yield and quality of cluster bean. The treatments included were T1 – control (unfortified seed served as control), T2 – water, T3 - gibberellic acid (200 ppm), T4 - silisilic acid (2ml) (silicilic acid is a beneficial element which is source of silicon with the chemical formula SiH4O4), T5 – KNO3 (2%), T6 - MgSO4 (1%), T7 – ZnSo4(1%), T8- Pongamia leaf extract (1%), T9- cow urine (10%, prepared by mixing 10 ml of fresh cow urine in 90 ml of distilled water) with a soaking duration of 3h. The results revealed that seed fortification with 1% MgSO4 recorded higher plant height, minimum days to 50% flowering and maturity, higher number of clusters per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, dry matter accumulation, 100 seed weight and seed yield compared to control. The percent improvement in seed yield due to MgSO4 fortification was 22.21 than unfortified seeds. Hence, seed fortification with 1% MgSO4 could be recommended for cluster bean as a pre-sowing seed invigourative treatment to improve the plant growth, seed yield and quality.

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Long-Xi Yu has completed his PhD from University of Orleans and postdoctoral studies from Cornell University. He is research geneticist in USDA-ARS and adjunct professor of Washington State University. He has published more than 50 publications in reputed journals and International conferences. He serves as a board member of several scientific committees.

Abstract:

Quantitative traits such as biotic and abiotic stress resistance are most likely under the control of multiple genes and interact with environmental factors. Identification of resistance loci that contribute to variation in such complex traits is a primary challenge in plant breeding and population genetics. In the present study, we used an integrated framework that merges a QTL mapping approach called ‘‘genome-wide association (GWA)’’ with high-throughput genome sequencing methodology called “genotyping by sequencing (GBS)” to map resistance loci in alfalfa. This framework provides a statistical basis for analyzing marker-trait association using linkage disequilibrium. We have identified a group of SNP markers associated with Verticillium wilt and drought resistance and there are located on different chromosomes. Validation of the markers is in progress. Once validated, these SNP markers can be used for marker-assisted selection.

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Fatima Ammar Al-Naemi earned her BSc in Botany and Microbiology from the College of Science, Qatar University in 1996, followed by an MSc in Pathogenic Fungi from Kansas State University in 2002. She earned her PhD in Plant Disease Epidemiology from Reading University in 2010. She is specialized in mycology and plant disease epidemiology, and was awarded a National Priority Research program (NPRP) grant in 2011 as well as two Undergraduate Research

Abstract:

Date palm is an important subsistence crop in arid regions due to its ability to grow under harsh environmental conditions such as high temperature. Nevertheless, the ideal conditions for its growth and production are also favorable to fungal diseases such as black scorch disease, which is caused by Ceratocystis radicicola. Our study aims to improve date palm to black scorch disease using different sustainable and genomics tools. Here, we reported for the first time that C. radicicola is the causal agent of black scorch disease in Qatar. The whole genome of the causal agent was sequenced; de novo assembled and annotated using the next generation sequencing and bioinformatics tools. The resulting draft genome was 28.1 Mb in length, comprised of 5480 genes. The annotated genome of C. radicicola will provide a basis for understanding fundamental biological mechanisms in this pathogen, which will eventually help in designing an effective genetic control of black scorch disease. Towards a sustainable agricultural control of this disease, we developed an eco-friendly method of biological control through isolation, identification and examination the effectiveness of bio-agents in controlling black scorch disease. Results from both in vitro and in vivo demonstrated the efficacy and utility of using bio-agents to control black scorch disease in date palm. Additionally, RNA-sequencing approach is being employed to profile the transcripts of date palm genome in response to C. radicicola infection to identify genes that might involve in resistance. Altogether, results from this study will help in improving date palm yield and increase the sustainable food supply