Aluri Jacob Solomon Raju
Andhra University, India
A J Solomon Raju has expertise in plant reproductive biology and its role in sustaining biodiversity, seed predation, mangrove ecology, biodiesel plants and Cycas ecology. He contributed valuable information on endemic, endangered, threatened, vulnerable and data-defi cient plant species in the Eastern Ghats Forests in India. Further, he has done excellent work on ecological aspects of honey bees, stingless bees, carpenter bees, digger bees, leaf-cutter bees, wasps, fl ies, beetles, butterfl ies, hawk moths and forest birds. Further, he did valuable work on the importance of herbaceous fl ora in eco-restoration, soil fertility, and soil and moist conservation. He has also evaluated the impacts of climate change on C3 and C4 herbaceous plants for their potential to sequester and clean up the atmosphere from high levels of carbon dioxide.
Bees visit fl owers for sustenance. Th ey use pollen as a protein source and nectar as an energy source. Adult females collect
pollen primarily to feed their larvae. Th e pollen, they inevitably lose in going from fl ower to fl ower is important to plants
for pollination. Diff erent bees have diff erent pollinating abilities depending on the fl oral density and characteristics such as
size, shape, colour, scent, and access to fl oral rewards, quality of pollen and nectar, etc. Bees require food throughout the year.
Perennial, annual and ephemeral plants play a vital role in sustaining bees. Th ese plants fl ower at diff erent times and thus
provide food to bees throughout the year. Among diff erent plants, perennials, especially trees are very important to sustain bee
diversity. In return, plants receive the benefi t of pollination, be it self or cross. Diff erent bees occur in our areas. Th ey include
honey bees, stingless bees, digger bees, carpenter bees, leaf-cutting bees and green bees, etc. Each category of bees has a unique
role in the sexual reproduction of plants, in the absence of which there would be no fruit setting. Th erefore, the bee diversity is
directly related to plant diversity and the relationships that exist between bees and plants are mostly mutualistic for the benefi t
of both partners. It is essential to provide nesting, resting, mating habitats and food sources for bees in order to provide