Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 3rd Global Summit on Plant Science Rome, Italy.

Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

Grace Chen

U.S. Department of Agriculture, USA

Keynote: Rapid Development of a Castor Cultivar with Increased Oil Content

Time : 09:10-09:40

OMICS International Plant Science 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Grace Chen photo
Biography:

Dr. Grace Chen obtained her Ph.D from University of Wisconsin at Madison, and did her postdoctoral studies from University of California ̶ Plant Gene Expression Center. She has published more than 44 papers in reputed journals is globally recognized as an expert on oilseed biotechnology.

Abstract:

Castor seed oil contains 90% ricinoleic acid which has a wide range of industrial applications. Improvement in oil content would be of great benefit to castor growers and oil processers. Two cycles of phenotypic recurrent selection were conducted through screening for high oil content castor seeds using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Selection increased mean oil content of a base population (Cycle 0) of cultivar Impala from 50.33% to 53.87% in Cycle 1 and 54.47% in Cycle 2. Gains from Cycle 1 and Cycle 2 were 3.54% and 0.6%, respectively. The small gain in the second cycle indicated a genetic ceiling of oil content or the genetic variability of the base population was extensively explored. Nevertheless, the 54.47% mean oil content of Cycle 2 ranks the selected material in the top 1% of the entire 1103 castor accessions maintained at United States of Department of Agriculture. As a result of the recurrent selection, we found average seed weight was also increased from 0.44 g in Cycle 0 to 0.50 g in Cycle 1 and 0.54 g in Cycle 2.  Correlation between oil content and weight was moderate (r = 0.43, p < 0.0001) in Cycle 0, and strong in Cycle 1 (r = 0.63, p < 0.0001) and Cycle 2 (r = 0.77, p < 0.0001). To our knowledge, this is the first report of utilizing NMR and recurrent selection for improving oil content in castor

Keynote Forum

Vanderlan da S. Bolzani

Sao Paulo State University, Brazil

Keynote: Natural products from Brazilian Biodiversity, a source of new templates for medicinal chemistry

Time : 09:40-10:10

OMICS International Plant Science 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Vanderlan da S. Bolzani photo
Biography:

Vanderlan da S. Bolzani is full professor at Sao Paulo State University (UNESP). Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry (UK), member of the Brazilian Academy of Science (ABC) and São Paulo Academy of Science (ACIESP) and TWAS, is CNPq Fellow level 1A, and has received several awards, highlighting: 2015 ABIQUIM Award on research innovation; 2014 CAPES-Elsevier Award for the contributions to science in Brazil, Distinguished Woman in Science Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, conceived by ACS & IUPAC (2011); Simão Mathias Medal, the highest honor conferred by Brazilian Chemical Society (2011). With Ph.D. in Organic Chemistry, under guidance of Prof. Otto R. Gottlieb, at University of São Paulo, in 1990 she was awarded with a fellowship from DAAD for a short training at University of Hannover. After a post-doctorate at Virginia Polytechnic Institute (VPISU-USA) under guidance of Prof. David Kingston, she joined to the UNESP, and since 2003, is member of the Biota-FAPESP Program Coordination. Her field of interest is plant science, and has been involved in the isolation, bioactivity and function of secondary metabolites and peptides from plants, and recently has been involved on metabolomics and medicinal chemistry. Has published > 270 papers, 7 patents, and 5 book chapter (ih = 39). Since 2011 is member of the Scientific Advisory Board of L’Oréal in Paris.

Abstract:

Plant species biosynthesize a wide variety of secondary metabolites, which play a vital role in the survival of the species themselves as well as in the preservation of ecological equilibrium of the ecosystems. They also are very important to regulate several functions that are fundamental to the plant/plant and plant/insect interaction, resistance against pests and diseases; attraction of pollinators, and interaction with symbiotic microorganisms. Therefore, natural compounds are treasure for synthesis and drug discovery new leads. The vast and biologically-rich Brazilian biodiversity represents an outstanding opportunity for the development of biology and chemistry sciences in many different research areas, including drug discovery. species exist in Brazil.

Within this scenario, the BIOTA/FAPESP Program was created in March 1999. Among the several objectives of this program, one goal is the search for bioactive compounds from Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes, aimed at to find new lead molecules. Some examples of lead molecules obtained in NuBBE Lab. Will be highlight showing the importance of tropical biodiversity for drug discovery. The 1st natural products data base from the Brazilian biodiversity also has been organized and we have used these data. Some natural products were identified to be synthetize aimed at major concentration of the compound for further pharmacological and toxicological assays, or to prepare synthetic derivatives aimed to improve the active already detected.

Keynote Forum

Djebbar Atmani

University of Bejaia, Algeria

Keynote: Plant phenolics: new remedies for old disease

Time : 10:10-10:40

OMICS International Plant Science 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Djebbar Atmani photo
Biography:

Professor Djebbar Atmani is a senior lecturer at the Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, University of Bejaia (Algeria). He obtained his Master of Science degree from California State University, Los Angeles (USA) in 1987 and his PhD from the University of Sétif (Algeria) in 2004. His research interest is natural products from medicinal plants. He published more than thirty papers in high impact scientific journals and attended several seminars and symposia worldwide.

Abstract:

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) constitute a group of low-molecular weight substances formed as byproducts of the normal metabolism of oxygen and have important roles in cell signaling and homeostasis. However, accumulation of ROS in cells, a phenomenon observed in oxidative stress, may cause damage to biological molecules and cell membranes, ultimately leading to cell death. ROS are believed to cause cellular damage mainly by lipid peroxidation which incorporates oxygen into membrane lipids. They are implicated in ageing and disease, including atherosclerosis, cancer and lung disease.

Nevertheless, ROS production is constantly balanced through the action of an endogenous antioxidant system, essentially made up of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Plant phenolics, an essential part of the human diet, have an aromatic ring bearing hydroxyl groups and their structures may range from simple phenols to complex high-molecular weight tannins. The plant kingdom counts more than eight thousand different phenolic compounds, among which flavonoids represent more than half.

During the last decade, numerous research reports clearly have pled for a decisive role of phenolic compounds as potential therapeutic agents in the treatment of inflammation, diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Hence, this study was designed to present an overview on ROS and associated pathologies, as well as case studies on plant phenolics. Moreover, evidence on the role of plant phenolics as potential new medicine will be presented and discussed.

Break: Group Photo 10:40-10:50 Network & Refreshment Break 10:50-11:05 @ Foyer
  • Oral Session: 1 Plant Science and Natural Products | Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences | Arabidopsis | Seed Science and Technology | Photosynthesis
Speaker

Chair

Grace Chen

U.S. Department of Agriculture, USA

Speaker

Co-Chair

Petronia Carillo

University of Campania, Italy

Session Introduction

Caroline Janitz

Western Sydney University, Australia

Title: Enhancing NGS performance through improvements in template preparation procedure

Time : 11:05-11:30

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Caroline Janitz is the manager of the Next-Generation Sequencing Facility at Western Sydney University, Australia. Along with supervising her team, Caroline is responsible for both the development and implementation of technological improvements in the NGS pipeline. She joined Western Sydney University in 2011 after working with the Ramaciotti Centre for Genomics at the UNSW Australia in Sydney, where she established and led the Illumina next-generation sequencing division. At both institutions, Caroline had a leading role in acquisition of the Illumina CSPro (Certified Service Provider) accreditation status. Caroline acquired her PhD in molecular genetics from the Freie Universität Berlin, Germany, under the supervision of Prof. Hans Lehrach, the Director of the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics in Berlin. Her PhD thesis focused on an investigation of the molecular mechanism of renal damage in the course of rat hypertension using laser microdissection and Affymetrix gene expression profiling.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Over the past few years next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has been broadly implemented across diverse research areas. Despite increasing sequencing throughput, sample preparation still remains a technical challenge. Slight modifications to the template preparation protocol may improve the quality of sequencing data and lead to a reduction in sequencing costs. We will present a number of improvements in template preparation protocol with examples from a variety of NGS applications.In metagenomics projects, un-normalised input DNA from different treatments can significantly affect sequencing outcomes at species level leading to a biased diversity estimate.

The main challenge for epigenetic NGS projects is a relatively high duplicate rate which results from the necessity for an increased number of PCR cycles frequently required to obtain enough material for sequencing. A simple reduction in the number of unnecessary PCR cycles can significantly diminish the duplicate rate resulting in enhanced ChIP-Seq data quality. Strand-specific RNA-Seq has been widely implemented in the field of transcriptomics, although template preparation still remains challenging, particularly for clinical samples. We will demonstrate that the implementation of minor improvements to the template preparation protocol results in dramatic amelioration in the quality of sequencing output

Fernando Broetto

Sao Paulo State University, Brazil

Title: Physiological impacts on coffee plants submitted to water defi ciency

Time : 11:30-11:55

Speaker
Biography:

Fernando Broetto has her expertise in Plant biochemistry, master's and PhD at São Paulo University (USP), Brazil. From 1991, research and teaching at São Paulo State University (UNESP), Brazil. Has experience in Agronomy, focusing on Physiology of cultivated Plants, acting on the following subjects: medicinal plants, plant metabolism, Stress responses

Abstract:

In this research, we evaluated biometric changes in coffee plants (cv. Obatã and cv. Catucaí) cultivated under water deficiency (WD). The trial was conducted in a greenhouse with coffee young plants growing in 5L pots and irrigated by drip system. The plants were submitted to water deficiency with three irrigation depths: L1-25%, L2-50% and L3-100% (5 repetitions) of the water requirement of the crop (WCN), applied in two cycles of water deficiency and interspersed with a reconditioning period. The results indicate that in the adaptation period, the plants of both coffee cultivars did not present significative differences for all analyzed growth parameters (p≤0.05), where cv. Catucaí showed better results. Likewise, there was no difference in plant height, number of leaves, FW and DW of leaves and leaf area of the two cultivars. In the first cycle of stress, mainly for L1 there was decrease of the FW and DW of root and stem, as well as diameter of stem in response to the treatment. The cv. Catucaí was higher in relation to cv. Obatã for biometric parameters. For stem diameter, fresh and dry weight of stem, plant height and number of leaves, there was a difference due to water treatments. In the second HD cycle, it was verified that only the number of leaves was lower for cv. Obatã. Regarding the effect of the treatments, except for the number of leaves and height of plants for cv. Obatã, all other parameters showed differences (p≤ .05) according to HD severity, with emphasis on L1 treatment. These results indicate that this cultivar is more sensitive to lack of water. It was also concluded that the recovery period between the DH cycles did not produce a new tolerance pattern regarding biometry, regardless of the cultivar

Speaker
Biography:

Petronia Carillo is an associate professor of plant physiology at the University of Campania, Italy. She has a strong theoretical and practical background in plant physiology, plant molecular biology, enzymology and metabolite profiling. Her research interests are centered on the interactions between nitrogen assimilation and carbon metabolism, and their short-term and long-term control mechanisms in photosynthetic organisms (unicellular algae and plants). At present, her main focus is the metabolite profiling of crop plants and plant model systems for the comprehension of the fundamental plant molecular and physiological responses to salinity, instrumental for developing new strategies to improve salt tolerance in agricultural crops. Since 2001, she collaborates with researchers of the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, Potsdam, Germany, for developing new high-throughput methods to measure enzyme activities and metabolites in plants. She is also interested in the valorization and reuse of agricultural residues in a bio-economy perspective

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Plant responses to salinity and drought stresses have been extensively studied to provide new metabolic targets and improving the tolerance to adverse environments. Most of these studies have been performed in growth chambers under the minimum requirement of light sufficient for the maximum photosynthetic efficiency and growth (300–350 μmol m–2 s–1 PAR), despite in nature plants face frequently fluctuations of light intensities exceeding their photosynthetic capacity. High light and salinity can be potentially dangerous for the impairment of the plants antioxidant defense mechanisms causing a strong increase of intracellular ROS and oxidative stress. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: In this study durum wheat seedlings were used as experimental model to investigate the plant response to salinity (100 mM NaCl), high light (900 μmol m–2 s–1) or both stresses simultaneously, focusing on the physiological and metabolic changes potentially involved in osmotic adjustment and antioxidant defense. Conclusion & Significance: Simultaneous high light and salinity did not cause many specific changes in durum wheat plants, which anyway maintained their viability and photosynthetic efficiency. They fine-tuned relatively few selected metabolites, in particular GABA, amides, minor amino acids, hexoses and proline, which were probably the main responsible for the osmotic adjustment, the biochemical pH-stat, the assimilation of the excess of ammonium, the scavenging of ROS and the signaling under the two stresses. However, even if this study concerns responses of seedlings rather than grain, the simultaneous several fold increase in the concentration of asparagine and hexoses if maintained until grain maturation, could be prone to acrylamide formation during baking and have possible serious food safety implication

Break: WORKSHOP

Caroline Janitz

Western Sydney University, Australia

Title: Next-Generation sequencing—basics & applications: Tools and technologies

Time : 12:20-13:00

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Caroline Janitz is the manager of the Next-Generation Sequencing Facility at Western Sydney University, Australia. Along with supervising her team, Caroline is responsible for both the development and implementation of technological improvements in the NGS pipeline. She joined Western Sydney University in 2011 after working with the Ramaciotti Centre for Genomics at the UNSW Australia in Sydney, where she established and led the Illumina next-generation sequencing division. At both institutions, Caroline had a leading role in acquisition of the Illumina CSPro (Certified Service Provider) accreditation status. Caroline acquired her PhD in molecular genetics from the Freie Universität Berlin, Germany, under the supervision of Prof. Hans Lehrach, the Director of the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics in Berlin. Her PhD thesis focused on an

Abstract:

Thinking about accelerating your research by implementing the next-generation sequencing technology? Having some questions related to your current NGS project?

Please join us for 1-hour free consultation session led by the NGS specialist- Caroline Janitz, the manager of the NGS Facility at Western Sydney University, Australia. Caroline has ten years’ experience in NGS field with over 300 successfully completed projects. It will be a great opportunity to discuss details of your project including the sample submission guidelines, library preparation and troubleshooting. The NGS session will take place…

  

Break: Lunch Break: 13:00-14:00 @ Hotel Restaurant

Mi Kyeong Lee

Chungbuk National University, South Korea

Title: Polyamines and fl avonoids of bee pollen with anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant activity

Time : 14:00-14:25

Speaker
Biography:

Mi Kyeong Lee is interested in the values of plants and natural products. Her main research is the isolation and characterization of constituents as well as the evaluation of biological activities of natural products. Recently, she is focused on the diversity of plants, such as different parts of plants, different maturation stages and post-harvest process.

Abstract:

Bee pollen is flower pollen collected by bees with nectar and salivary substances and rich in nutrients. It has been used as traditional medicine and supplementary nutrients with diverse activities. Recently, antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of bee pollen extract have been reported. For the characterization of constituents of compounds from bee pollen, isolation of compounds from the bee pollen of Quercus mongolica were conducted using a various column chromatography and their structures were determined by 1D-NMR (1H NMR and 13C NMR), 2D-NMR (HSQC, HMBC, NOESY) and HRESI-TOF-MS. Investigation resulted in the isolation of 38 compounds including 18 polyamines and 19 flavonoids. Polyamines were further divided into two putrescines, fifteen spermidines and one spermine. Flavonoids were further grouped as one flavanone, 15 flavones and one isoflavonoid. Among them, seven polyamines were first reported from nature; One putrescine, N1-(E)-N6-(Z)-di-p-coumaroyl-putrescine named mogolicine A, five spermidines, N1-acetyl-N5,N10-(E)-di-p-4-methoxycinnamoyl-spemidine, N1-acetyl-N5-(Z), N10-(E)-di-p-4-methoxycinnamoyl-spermidine, N1-acetyl-N5,N10-(Z)-di-p-4-methoxycinnamoyl-spermidine, N1-(E),N5-(Z),N10-(E)-tri-p-4-methoxycinnamoyl-spermidine and N1-p-anisamide-N5-(Z),N10-(E)-di-p-4-methoxycinnamoyl-spermidine, named mogolidines  A-F, and one spermine, N1,N5,N10,N14-(E)-tetra-p-coumaroylspermine named mogolidine A.   The isolated compounds showed antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase activity. Interestingly, polyamines showed more strong inhibition on tyrosnase with IC50 values of 19.5-31.7 µM whereas flavonoids showed potent antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 9.7-34.3 µM. These results provide useful information about bee pollen as antioxidant ingredients and cosmetic therapeutics to reduce oxidative stress and hyperpigmentation.

Speaker
Biography:

Professor Djebbar Atmani is a senior lecturer at the Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, University of Bejaia (Algeria). He obtained his Master of Science degree from California State University, Los Angeles (USA) in 1987 and his PhD from the University of Sétif (Algeria) in 2004. His research interest is natural products from medicinal plants. He published more than thirty papers in high impact scientific journals and attended several seminars and symposia worldwide

Abstract:

Phytochemicals, including phenolic compounds, present in many plants have received much attention in recent years due to their health benefits, including antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities. This study was conducted to determine the biological properties of Pistacia and Fraxinus angustifolia, two plants used in traditional Algerian medicine.

The investigation of the cytotoxic effect of plant extracts was carried out using the MTT assay on two ovarian A2780 and SKOV3 cell lines, the melanoma B16F10 and the mammary EMT6 tumor cell lines. A PI staining has been done for the study of apoptosis and cell cycle. The results showed a great cytotoxic potential against A2780, SKOV3 and B16F10 cells with IC50 values of 10 µg/ml, 18 µg/ml and 56.40 µg/ml, respectively. Moreover, these extracts exhibited an increase in G1 and S phases for SKOV3 and B16F10 cells. Furthermore, P. lentiscus and F. angustifolia extracts, exhibited a promising anti-diabetic activity in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, by the reduction of blood glucose level, a result confirmed by the inhibition of alpha-amylase in vitro.

   In addition, the results of the anti-inflammatory activity of P. lentiscus and F. angustifolia showed significant reduction of the paw edema induced by carrageenan. P. lentiscus extracts showed a significant reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β) on activated macrophages. Moreover, the extracts of F. angustifolia, significantly inhibited ear edema induced by single and multiple doses of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA).  In vivo, the vesicles loaded with the crude extract of F. angustifolia and especially PEVs (Penetration Enhancer-containing Vesicles) inhibited oxidative stress in human keratinocytes and attenuated edema and leukocyte infiltration. HPLC-MS analyses allowed the identification of new phenolic compounds.

Overall, results indicate that Pistacia lentiscus and Fraxinus angustifolia extracts could be beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory conditions and diabetes complications, as evidenced by the present study.

Speaker
Biography:

Dina Atmani-Kilani has obtained her BS degree in Biology from the American University of Beirut, Lebanon, her master degree in Biology from Cal State LA, USA and her PhD from the University of Bejaia, Algeria. Her teaching activities in the fields of Molecular Biology and Genetics since 1990 in the University of Bejaia has provided her with a lot of experience. Furthermore, her implication in research in the field of medicinal plants with the collaboration of her colleagues has allowed many PhD students to obtain their degree and resulted in many international publications. As her conviction that medicinal plants research will lead to the development of novel drugs with better efficiency than synthetic medicines, she hopes that her contribution will be fruitful.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Gastric ulcer is a widely distributed disease characterized by lesions in the gastric mucosa leading to inflammatory condition and an  increase in oxidative stress. Clematis flammula (Ranunculaceae) is a medicinal plant largely used by rural populations in Algeria to treat inflammatory disorders like rheumatoid arthritis. However, its use against gastric ulcer is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the gastroprotective effect of the leaves ethanolic extract of C. flammula in an animal model.

Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Gastric ulcer was induced by indomethacin (25mg/kg) in male mice, one hour after the administration of ethanolic extracts of C. flammula at different concentrations (25, 50, 100 and 200mg/kg) and the reference drugs misoprostol  Omeprazole and Bromazepam. The anti-ulcer activity of the extracts was evaluated by the estimation of the ulcer score (UC), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione and MDA levels in the tissue homogenates of the stomach.  Histological analysis boosted by the extract, mainly at 100 mg/kg from 16.68±0.96µmoles/mg/min in the indomethacin-treated group to 28.99±3.2 comparable to misoprostole (26.4±2.49µmoles/mg/min) administered at 200µg/Kg misoprostol. The depletion of glutathione level by indomethacin (2.76±0.63 μmoles/mg prot) in the ulcerated group was prevented by the pre-treatment with 100mg/kg of Clematis flammula leaves extract and was restored to a normal level (30.95 ± 2.76 μmoles/mg prot). Histological analysis confirmed the results.

Conclusion & Significance: These results prove that the antioxidant activity of the plant contributes to its gastroprotective potential was also performed to confirm the results

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Yuchan Zhou is a plant scientist with interest in the genetic and environmental control of plant development. Her current research focus is to improve climate resilience of tropical tree crops through a better understanding of the diversity and molecular basis of tree architecture. Her other research area includes functional genomics of nutrient accumulation in developing fruits and seeds, the biology and management of postharvest food loss and stress tolerance.

 

Abstract:

Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is a traditional staple tree crop in the Oceania. Susceptibility to tropical windstorm damage has driven an interest in developing breadfruit with dwarf stature.  Gibberellin (GA) is one of the most important determinants of plant height.  As a first step toward understanding the molecular mechanism of growth regulation in the species, we investigated the role of GA and the regulation of GA20-oxidase and  GA2-oxidase genes in breadfruit.  We provided first evidence that the stem elongation in breadfruit could be manipulated by exogenous gibberellin-related growth regulators. We then cloned six GA20-oxidase cDNAs, AaGA20ox1- AaGA20ox6, and four GA2-oxidase cDNAs, AaGA2ox1- AaGA2ox4 in full-length from breadfruit.  AaGA20ox1, AaGA20ox3 and AaGA20ox4 were predominantly expressed in green vegetative organs, but displayed different expression pattern in roots and reproductive organs.  AaGA20ox2, AaGA20ox5 and AaGA20ox6 were expressed mainly in leaves at low level. On the other hand, transcripts of AaGA2ox1, AaGA2ox2 and AaGA2ox3 were detected in all plant organs, but exhibited highest level in source leaves and stems. In contrast, transcript of AaGA2ox4 was predominantly expressed in roots and flowers, and displayed very low expression in leaves and stems.  AaGA20ox1, AaGA20ox3 - AaGA20ox6 and AaGA2ox1 - AaGA2ox3, were subjected to GA feedback regulation following treatment of exogenous gibberellin and/or gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitors.  Members of AaGA20oxs and AsGA2oxs were also regulated under drought and salinity stress.  The function of these genes is discussed with particular reference to their role in stem elongation and the opportunities of breadfruit dwarfing

Break: Network & Refreshment Break 15:40-16:00 @ Foyer

Laura Fattorini

Sapienza University of Rome, Italy

Title: Arabidopsis root formation is altered by cadmium and arsenic

Time : 16:00-16:25

Speaker
Biography:

Laura Fattorini is assistant professor in Sapienza University of Rome, Italy

Abstract:

The semimetal arsenic (As) and the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) are highly toxic for plants and animals, evoking enormous concern due to their widespread and persistent presence in polluted ecosystems. Both elements are not essential for plants but easily absorbed by their roots using the same membrane transporters of essential nutrients (1). The exposure to Cd or As causes inhibition of plant growth, especially in sensitive plants as Arabidopsis thaliana, the model species used in this research.

It was reported that Cd and As mainly localize in root meristems (2, 3). The correct organization and functionality of primary (PR), lateral (LR) and adventitious (AR) roots depends on the integrity of their apical meristem, and, in particular, on the correct activity and maintenance over time of a small group of cells which rarely divide, i.e. the quiescent centre (QC) cells. The QC inhibits the differentiation of the surrounding stem cells, allowing the apical root growth and the correct root differentiation (4). In A. thaliana LR and AR originate from pericycle founder cells in the PR and hypocotyl, respectively, and their QC is established in a precise stage of primordium development (5, and references therein). It was demonstrated that the positioning and maintenance of the QC in these roots is strictly related to a correct transport and biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (6), the main plant auxin. To the aim to investigate the effect of Cd and As on auxin-mediated LR and AR development and QC maintenance, the expression of the IAA-sensitive DR5::GUS, of QC25::GUS (QC-marker), of the auxin biosynthetic gene YUCCA6, of the IAA carriers GUS-lines PIN1::GUS and LAX3::GUS and IAA levels in seedlings exposed to Na2HAsO4.7H2O and/or CdSO4 were evaluated. Results indicate that Cd and As alter auxin biosynthesis and transport during root formation, with consequent negative effects on their growth.

Speaker
Biography:

Sergey Dolgov the head of laboratory of expression systems and plant genome modification “Biotron”. During last 25 years the technologies of in vitro cultivation of isolated cells, tissues and organs on artificial media have been developed for more than plant 30 species. Highly effective methods of genetic transformation have been developed for a large number of plants (carrots, tomatoes, pears, apples, strawberries, wheat, duckweed, chrysanthemum), which allow to study the activity of foreign proteins in transgenic plants and obtain varieties with economically valuable traits. Currently, the station of artificial climate "Biotron" do researches on the plant physiology and molecular biology (studying of genes that affect the flowering morphology of Compositae), Biopharming, protection of plants against biotic and abiotic stresses, field trials of transgenic fruit trees, etc

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem. Plum pox virus (PPV) is the serious viral disease affecting Prunus species such as plum, apricot, cherry and peach. To date the few PPV resistance genetic resources found in Prunus germplasm, nevertheless the conventional breeding approaches are very challenging for use in fruit trees due to several limiting intrinsic factors.

Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Several biotechnological approaches could be used to develop PPV resistance in plants; nonetheless, the RNA interference is shown to be the most effective disease-control strategy (Ilardi and Tavazza 2015). In our initial report we have successfully used this      biotechnological technology to produce transgenic plants of commercial cultivar “Startovaja” (Prunus domestica L.) with PPV-derived ihpRNA construct (Mikhailov and Dolgov 2011). The transformation experiments were conducted using genetic construct containing the self-complementary sequences of fragment of PPVCP gene separated by an intron for the induction Plum Pox Virus (PPV) resistance through the mechanism of post-transcriptional gene silencing. Transgenic plum rootstocks plants have been produced from organogenic callus developed on leaf explants within 6-month culture after the inoculation.

Conclusion & Significance: PCR-analysis confirmed the transgenic status of produced plants by the amplification of the fragments of “hairpin”-PPV-CP construct and hpt gene. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful attempt to produce transgenic plum rootstock.

Speaker
Biography:

Aidilla Mubarak is a lecturer at the School of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, a university on the East Coast of Malaysia. Her educational background includes BSc in Molecular Bioscience from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and MSc and Doctorate in Nutrition from The University of Western Australia. Passionate about phytochemicals, she preceded her career with research that revolves around polyphenols. Her research has largely been driven towards exploring composition of these compounds in various crops. The knowledge in nutrition also guided her research towards understanding pharmacological benefits from polyphenols from edible crops particularly on cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Aidilla have published several high impact articles on the area of polyphenols, and was recognized with awards that mark her achievement in studies that explored the bioactive compounds from plant sources. Aidilla is also avid about sharing her familiarity for polyphenols with fellow scientists to sustain the interest for this super-compound

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Hevea brasiliensis produces valuable latex and is an important commodity throughout the world. Understanding its composition of phytochemical such as polyphenol is vital to ensure sustainable production and a high quality yield. The knowledge on polyphenol profile of Hevea brasiliensis is surprisingly scarce, albeit the importance of this phytochemical particularly for plant protection. The knowledge on polyphenol profile in this crop is believed to be crucial for sustained rubber production to meet the constant world rubber demand. Moreover, there is also no report on the polyphenols profile in rubber processing effluents. The knowledge on composition of this valuable compound in the waste is similarly important, as it can create wealth opportunities from the source of waste. Thus, this study aimed to develop an optimal extraction method using solid phase extraction (SPE) for polyphenol in latex of Hevea brasiliensis and effluent from rubber processing. This study also intended to determine the ideal techniques for determination of polyphenol compounds via High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Based on the optimized methods, this study worked on determining and profiling select polyphenols in the latex and effluent. To support the profiling, this study also tests the sample for detection of polyphenols through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and total phenolic content assay. This study succeeded in determining the best SPE method for extracting polyphenols in the samples of interest. The best separation method of polyphenol via HPLC was also determined. We observed the presence of polyphenols from both latex and effluent through FTIR and total phenolic content assay. HPLC analysis showed detection of several polyphenol peaks in both latex and effluent when compared to authentic polyphenol standards. Current achievement in this study marks the potential of understanding polyphenol composition in latex of Hevea brasiliensis and effluent from rubber processing which has not been explored before.

Speaker
Biography:

Wing Kin Yip is an Associate Professor in the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Hong Kong.  His research interests are in the physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology related to plant hormone ethylene.  He has published papers on the biosynthesis of ethylene; catalytic function of ACC synthase; tomato ACC synthase gene family; rice ethylene receptors; and also works on cyanide detoxification related to ethylene biosynthesis

Abstract:

Plant hormone ethylene regulates many aspects in plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses.  These regulatory functions of ethylene generally start with the increase or decrease of its biosynthesis, receptor binding, signal transduction, changes in gene expression leading to various physiological responses.  The signaling pathways in model plant Arabidopsis, which is a dicotyledonous species, is well characterized starting with the binding of ethylene to its five receptors localized to ER membrane.   Rice is the model for monocotyledonous species and also an important crop, containing same number of ethylene receptors as in Arabidopsis, but believed to have more complicated network in ethylene regulation.  OsERS1 and OsETR2 are the two major ethylene receptors in rice and have different regulatory functions as revealed by many studies. We tagged GFP to the N-terminal transmembrane domain of both OsERS1 and OsETR2 and examined their subcellular localization in onions cells by confocal imaging. We conclude that OsERS1 is localized to plasma-membrane, whereas OsETR2 is localized to endoplasmic reticulum.  This is the first report of ethylene receptors shown to be localized to different subcellular compartments in the same species, implicating separate functions of these receptors in rice. Previous studies on OsETR2 showed that its mRNA levels in tissues could undergo rapid changes in various treatments, including exogenous application of IAA, silver ion, ethylene, GA; and when submerged in water. We further show in this study that, light growth seedlings express higher levels of OsETR2 mRNA compared to dark-growth seedlings when submerged; 1-MCP pre-treatment was effective to block the increase of OsETR2 mRNA induced by ethylene and submergence; and that 1-MCP pre-treatment can promote ethylene biosynthesis in both green seedlings and  submerged green seedlings.  Based on our results and others, we speculate that OsERS1 and OsETR2 could have differential roles during rice plant submergence